by Jan Goller

The indicator of welfare for men is higher than for women. In 2013, the average differential of both genders in Spain was 0.3% and in 2017 more than 4%. So, it raised significantly. According to the study published by Fedea, this indicator increases with age and educational level within each sex. The good news is that during this period the employment has grown and the inequality has been reduced – for both genders. But in all cases more for men than for women.

A welfare indicator linked to employment

The work of José Ignacio García Pérez and Antonio Villar, both from the Pablo de Olavide University in Seville,  compares the situation of employment in Spain in 2013 and 2017. It includes 40 types of workers, by gender (2 categories), level of studies (4 levels) and age (5 groups).

To this end, they constructed an indicator of welfare linked to employment. It takes into account the average incidence of employment, its intensity and the inequality of its distribution within each group. It depends respectively of the average employment rate, the average number of working months during the year and the function of the Gini index of the distribution of employment intensity within each population group.

Not all groups have benefited from the economic recovery

The results show that the welfare indicator is higher for men than for women (with an average differential of 0.3% in 2013 and 4.1% in 2017) and increases with age and educational level within each sex. Between 2013 and 2017 an improvement of the indicator is observed, which is noticeably greater for men than for women. During this period, employment has grown more than the working months. Inequality has been reduced but in all cases more for men than for women.

Overall, there is an improvement in social welfare what means employment of around 7% for men and slightly less than 3% for women. However, not all groups have benefited from the economic recovery. The most penalized have been young people without higher education and women with lower levels of education.

Significant regional differences

Comparing the different results depending from the regions you can observe huge contrasts. The national average of employment in the regions is still lower than the welfare indicator. In La Rioja and Cantabria it is the other way around. Andalusia, Castilla la Mancha, Valencia and Murcia are the regions with the greatest negative differences between employment and welfare. Meanwhile, Catalonia, Madrid, Navarre and the Basque Country are the ones with the greatest positive differences.