In economics an unhealthy intellectual monopoly of neo classics dominates teaching, research, advice to policy, and public debate.

We need more freedom in Economic teaching

Many other perspectives that could provide valuable insights are marginalised and excluded. This is not about
one theory being better than another, but the notion that scientific advance only moves ahead with a
debate. Within economics, this debate has died.

Economics need to become part of our daily life

Second, while neoclassical economics made a contribution historically and is still useful, there is ample
opportunity for improvement, debate and learning from other disciplines and perspectives.

Third, mainstream economics appears to have become incapable of self-correction, developing more
as a faith than as a science. Too often, when theories and evidence have come into conflict, it is the
theories that have been upheld and the evidence that has been discarded.

1. The purpose of the economy is for society to decide. No economic goal can be separated from politics.
Indicators of success represent political choices.
2. The distribution of wealth and income are fundamental to economic reality and should be so in economic
3. Economics is not value-free and economists should be transparent about the value judgments they make.
This applies especially to those value judgments that may not be visible to the untrained eye.
4. Policy does not ‘level’ the playing field, but tilts it in a direction. We need a more explicit discussion of what sort of economy we want, and how to get there.
5. The nature of the economy is that it is a subset of nature, and of the societies it emerges within. It does not exist as an independent entity. Social institutions and ecological systems are therefore central, not external, to its functioning.
6. The economy cannot survive or thrive without inputs from the natural world, or without the many life supporting systems that the natural world provides. It depends upon a continual through-flow of energy and
matter, and operates within a delicately balanced biosphere. An economic theory that treats the natural world
as external to its model cannot fully understand how the degradation of the natural world may damage its
own prospects.
7. Economics must recognise that the availability of non-renewable energy and resources is not infinite, and the
use of these stocks to access the energy they contain alters the planet’s aggregate energy balances, creating
consequences such as climatic upheaval.
8. Feedbacks between the economy and the ecology cannot be ignored. Ignoring them to date has led to a global
economy that already operates well outside the viable thresholds of the ecology that houses it, yet requires
further growth to function. But economics must be grounded in the objective constraints of the ecology of
the planet.
9. People are not perfect, and ‘perfectly rational’ economic decision-making is not possible. Any economic
decisions that have something to do with the future involve a degree of unquantifiable uncertainty, and
therefore require judgement. Mainstream economic theory and practice must recognise the role of
10. Innovation is not external to the economy; it is an inherent part of economic activity. Our understanding of
GDP growth may be improved if we see innovation as occurring within a constantly-evolving, disequilibrium
ecosystem, shaped by the design of markets and by the interactions between all actors within them.
11. Economics needs a better understanding of how instability and crises can be created internally within markets,
rather than treating them as ‘shocks’ that affect markets from the outside.